P2P Network

Boosting network decentralization with P2P
Cardano Documentation: About the Cardano network

As of April 1, 2021 (Japan time), block generation has been completely decentralized to a community staking pool. On the other hand, the communication of generated blocks and transactions is done at the network layer. The network layer in Cardano refers to the physical infrastructure layer that connects nodes.

A peer-to-peer (P2P) network, which will be implemented in the near future, is a network software that is concerned with the connection between nodes. The P2P (peer-to-peer) network consists of a P2P governor, a connection manager, a server, and an inbound protocol governor. This is a very important update because it involves the decentralization of the network layer.


  • In order to connect nodes, SPOs (Stake Pool Operators) manually set up connections based on the list of relay nodes that are available online. It is said that it is efficient to connect about 20 peers, but not all of them are well-maintained nodes because of human intervention.
  • It is always set to connect to the IOHK relay node. In this area, Cardano relies on IOHK nodes and is not fully decentralized, giving Bitcoin and Ethereum an advantage. As you can see in the network diagram in the Cardano Documentation, IOHK nodes are connected to wallets and exchanges. We can never be sure that the operation will be terminated for some reason, or that the node will be shut down due to a disaster.

After Update

In order to solve the current risk,

  • The P2P governor will automatically identify and connect to the active node.
  • The Connection Manager allows you to monitor connections, establish efficient connections, and improve security.
  • The SPO’s relay nodes, instead of relying on IOHK nodes, will be distributed at the network layer. This is valuable in that it is independent of the organization and can continue to run for 100 years.
  • Use the on-chain stake pool registry.

What is to come?

  • P2P Private test net to Launch in April
  • Test net conducted by SPO by invitation only.
  • Partial main net implementation
  • Complete main net implementation
  • To be fully implemented in late 2021.